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Hot or Not: What Kind of Job Market Does The Class of 2014 Face?



  Need a Job? Here's Some Tips
On The WBEN Liveline
John Challenger, Challenger Gray & Christmas
Buffalo's Early News in Depth
Hear John & Susan with
 Bill Naab, MatchMyWork.com 
Pt. 1 | Pt II | Pt. III | Pt. IV
 
(WBEN) Graduates in accounting, engineering or health care probably aren't worrying much about their future in Western New York.  And worst case scenario: There are still a lot of retail, cashier and food service jobs to go around.

With graduation season in full swing, Buffalo's Early News & WBEN.com is taking a look at the job prospects facing the class of 2014. 


 
"There's two main trends that have been in place for a while. One is in technical occupations , and the other is in the medical field.  In  the medical field it's mainly because of demographics, and in the technical fields we have had a shortage of everything from engineers top computer programmers. Those guys really hit the ground running when they graduate,"
   
     -- John Slenker

Regional Economist, NYS Dept. Of Labor

 
 

Change in Total Nonfarm and Private Sector Jobs,
March 2014 – April 2014
  Change in
Total Nonfarm Jobs:

(private sector + government)
Change in
Private
Sector Jobs:
 
Net
%
Net
%
U. S. +288,000 +0.2% +273,000 +0.2%
NY +1,600 0.0% +2,500 0.0%
 
WEB EXTRA:  The Fastest Growing Jobs In WNY

The Most Abundant Jobs in WNY


According to the NYS Labor Dept., WNY graduates  face a big  supply of lower wage service jobs to get them by, and a fast growing booml in the medical, engineering and technical fields.  And accountants have the most abundant local job that requires a four year degree.

NYS Dept. Of Labor projections show that low skill positions like waiters, retail clerks & cashiers are the most abundant in Western New York, but the health care field and technical fields (engineering, computer related, etc) are showing the strongest growth in recent years. 

April's unemployment rate in WNY is 5.8 %, down from 7.5 %  the prior year, but job growth is far flatter in the short term 
(See chart at L)


 
Western NY Region Fastest Growing Occupations
NYS Dept. of Labor  Long-Term Occupational Employment Projections, 2010-2020
Job Title Percent
Change
Employment
number of jobs
2010 2020
 Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining 100.0% 60 120
Software Developers, Systems Software 49.6% 1,150 1,720
Personal Care Aides 45.8% 5,980 8,720
Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners 40.9% 440 620
Veterinary Technologists and Technicians 40.5% 420 590
Home Health Aides 38.0% 7,890 10,890
Health Educators 36.6% 410 560
Helpers--Carpenters 34.8% 230 310
Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile & Marble Setters 33.3% 150 200
Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics 32.8% 640 850
Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists 32.2% 1,710 2,260
Diagnostic Medical Sonographers 32.0% 250 330
Physical Therapist Assistants 31.0% 290 380
Medical Secretaries 30.9% 1,650 2,160
Coaches and Scouts 30.9% 940 1,230
Audiologists 28.6% 70 90
Personal Financial Advisors 28.2% 710 910
Healthcare Social Workers 27.7% 650 830
Software Developers, Applications 27.5% 1,490 1,900
 Information Security Analysts, Web Developers,
& Computer Net. Architects
27.4% 1,970 2,510
 Physical Therapists 27.2% 1,140 1,450
Dental Hygienists 26.4% 1,210 1,530
Database Administrators 26.3% 380 480
Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers 26.1% 230 290
Brickmasons and Blockmasons 26.0% 500 630
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers 26.0% 500 630
 Occupational Therapy Assistants 25.6% 390 490
Amusement and Recreation Attendants 25.4% 1,180 1,480
Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists &  Geographers 25.0% 120 150
 Geological and Petroleum Technicians 25.0% 120 150
Mental Health Counselors 25.0% 520 650
Chiropractors 25.0% 160 200
Anesthesiologists 25.0% 360 450
       Pest Control Workers 25.0% 120 150
       Glaziers 25.0% 160 200
Source: New York State Department of Labor, Division of Research and Statistics, Occupational Employment  Statistics Survey
MOST ABUNDANT JOBS IN WNY THROUGH 2020
And what kind of training you need to get them

Ranked by (Projected) Annual Average Openings  (2013-2020)
Note:  Some listed jobs can have only a few new openings, but still be favorable due to the number of  existing jobs 
Job
Title
Employment Prospects Annual
Average Openings
Entry Level Education Required Work
Experience Required
Cashiers Very Favorable 880 Less than high school None
Retail Salespersons Very Favorable 780 Less than high school None
Waiters and Waitresses Very Favorable 670 Less than high school None
Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food Very Favorable 540 Less than high school None
Customer Service Representatives Very Favorable 510 High school diploma or equivalent None
Registered Nurses Very Favorable 460 Associate's degree None
Childcare Workers Very Favorable 450 High school diploma or equivalent None
Home Health Aides Very Favorable 400 Less than high school None
Office Clerks, General Very Favorable 380 High school diploma or equivalent None
Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop Very Favorable 370 Less than high school None
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Very Favorable 320 Less than high school None
Personal Care Aides Very Favorable 320 Less than high school None
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand Very Favorable 280 Less than high school None
First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers Very Favorable 270 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Receptionists and Information Clerks Very Favorable 270 High school diploma or equivalent None
Teacher Assistants Very Favorable 260 High school diploma or equivalent None
Stock Clerks and Order Fillers Unfavorable 260 Less than high school None
Accountants and Auditors Very Favorable 220 Bachelor's degree None
Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education Very Favorable 220 Bachelor's degree None
Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses Very Favorable 220 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products Very Favorable 210 High school diploma or equivalent None
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive Favorable 210 High school diploma or equivalent None
Food Preparation Workers Very Favorable 200 Less than high school None
Bill and Account Collectors Very Favorable 200 High school diploma or equivalent None
Bartenders Very Favorable 190 Less than high school None
Dishwashers Very Favorable 190 Less than high school None
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks Very Favorable 190 High school diploma or equivalent None
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Very Favorable 180 Less than high school None
Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education Favorable 170 Bachelor's degree None
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers Very Favorable 170 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers Very Favorable 170 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Cooks, Restaurant Very Favorable 160 Less than high school Less than 1 year
Maintenance and Repair Workers, General Very Favorable 160 High school diploma or equivalent None
Carpenters Very Favorable 150 High school diploma or equivalent None
General and Operations Managers Unfavorable 140 Associate's degree 1 to 5 years
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics Very Favorable 140 High school diploma or equivalent None
Physicians and Surgeons, All Other Very Favorable 130 Doctoral or professional degree None
Security Guards Very Favorable 130 High school diploma or equivalent None
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers Very Favorable 130 Less than high school None
Computer Support Specialists Very Favorable 120 Some college, no degree None
Social and Human Service Assistants Very Favorable 120 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers Very Favorable 120 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists Very Favorable 110 Bachelor's degree None
Bus Drivers, School or Special Client Very Favorable 110 High school diploma or equivalent None
Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers Favorable 100 High school diploma or equivalent None
Amusement and Recreation Attendants Very Favorable 100 Less than high school None
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists Very Favorable 100 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Recreation Workers Very Favorable 100 Bachelor's degree None
Tellers Very Favorable 100 High school diploma or equivalent None
Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education Very Favorable 90 Bachelor's degree None
Self-Enrichment Education Teachers Very Favorable 90 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Teachers and Instructors, All Other Favorable 90 Bachelor's degree None
Sales Representatives, Services, All Other Very Favorable 90 High school diploma or equivalent None
Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks Unfavorable 90 High school diploma or equivalent None
Packers and Packagers, Hand Unfavorable 90 Less than high school None
Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists, All Other Very Favorable 80 Bachelor's degree None
Computer Systems Analysts Very Favorable 80 Bachelor's degree None
Information Security Analysts, Web Developers, and Computer Network Architects Very Favorable 80 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Lawyers Very Favorable 80 Doctoral or professional degree None
Special Education Teachers, Preschool, Kindergarten, and Elementary School Very Favorable 80 Bachelor's degree None
Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers Very Favorable 80 Less than high school None
Billing and Posting Clerks Very Favorable 80 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers Very Favorable 80 High school diploma or equivalent More than 5 years
Electricians Very Favorable 80 High school diploma or equivalent None
Team Assemblers Unfavorable 80 High school diploma or equivalent None
Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers Very Favorable 80 High school diploma or equivalent None
Software Developers, Systems Software Very Favorable 70 Bachelor's degree None
Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education Very Favorable 70 Associate's degree None
Medical Secretaries Very Favorable 70 High school diploma or equivalent None
Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Very Favorable 70 High school diploma or equivalent None
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers Favorable 70 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment Very Favorable 70 Less than high school None
Business Operations Specialists, All Other Very Favorable 60 High school diploma or equivalent Less than 1 year
Software Developers, Applications Very Favorable 60 Bachelor's degree None
Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors Very Favorable 60 Master's degree None
Postsecondary Teachers, All Other Very Favorable 60 Master's degree None
Pharmacy Technicians Very Favorable 60 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria Very Favorable 60 Less than high school None
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant Very Favorable 60 Less than high school None
Insurance Sales Agents Very Favorable 60 High school diploma or equivalent None
Postal Service Mail Carriers Unfavorable 60 High school diploma or equivalent None
Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants Very Favorable 60 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Construction Laborers Very Favorable 60 Less than high school None
Painters, Construction and Maintenance Very Favorable 60 Less than high school None
Highway Maintenance Workers Favorable 60 High school diploma or equivalent None
Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers Very Favorable 60 High school diploma or equivalent Less than 1 year
Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs Very Favorable 60 Less than high school None
Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators Unfavorable 60 Less than high school Less than 1 year
Financial Managers Very Favorable 50 Bachelor's degree More than 5 years
Management Analysts Very Favorable 50 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Training and Development Specialists Very Favorable 50 Bachelor's degree None
Computer Programmers Very Favorable 50 Bachelor's degree None
Network and Computer Systems Administrators Very Favorable 50 Bachelor's degree None
Coaches and Scouts Very Favorable 50 High school diploma or equivalent None
Pharmacists Very Favorable 50 Doctoral or professional degree None
Dental Hygienists Very Favorable 50 Associate's degree None
Dental Assistants Very Favorable 50 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Medical Assistants Very Favorable 50 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers Very Favorable 50 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks Very Favorable 50 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Very Favorable 50 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Industrial Machinery Mechanics Very Favorable 50 High school diploma or equivalent None
Machinists Very Favorable 50 High school diploma or equivalent None
Chief Executives Unfavorable 40 Bachelor's degree More than 5 years
Computer and Information Systems Managers Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree More than 5 years
Medical and Health Services Managers Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators Unfavorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cost Estimators Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Financial Analysts Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Rehabilitation Counselors Very Favorable 40 Master's degree None
Child, Family, and School Social Workers Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Healthcare Social Workers Very Favorable 40 Master's degree None
Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Clergy Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Paralegals and Legal Assistants Very Favorable 40 Associate's degree None
Public Relations Specialists Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Physical Therapists Very Favorable 40 Doctoral or professional degree None
Speech-Language Pathologists Very Favorable 40 Master's degree None
Radiologic Technologists and Technicians Very Favorable 40 Associate's degree None
Firefighters Favorable 40 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers Very Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cooks, Fast Food Favorable 40 Less than high school None
Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors Very Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent More than 5 years
Counter and Rental Clerks Unfavorable 40 Less than high school None
Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents Very Favorable 40 Bachelor's degree None
Real Estate Sales Agents Very Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Library Assistants, Clerical Very Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators Very Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Construction and Building Inspectors Very Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent More than 5 years
Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists Very Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers Very Favorable 40 Postsecondary non-degree award None
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers Unfavorable 40 Postsecondary non-degree award 1 to 5 years
Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders Unfavorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Driver/Sales Workers Favorable 40 High school diploma or equivalent None
Sales Managers Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School Favorable 30 Master's degree 1 to 5 years
Education Administrators, Postsecondary Favorable 30 Master's degree 1 to 5 years
Social and Community Service Managers Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products Unfavorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Compliance Officers Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree Less than 1 year
Personal Financial Advisors Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Loan Officers Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Industrial Engineers Unfavorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Mechanical Engineers Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists Very Favorable 30 Doctoral or professional degree None
Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists Very Favorable 30 Doctoral or professional degree None
Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Social Workers, All Other Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Health Educators Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates Very Favorable 30 Doctoral or professional degree More than 5 years
Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary Very Favorable 30 Doctoral or professional degree None
Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Special Education Teachers, Middle School Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Special Education Teachers, Secondary School Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Instructional Coordinators Very Favorable 30 Master's degree More than 5 years
Graphic Designers Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Producers and Directors Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Music Directors and Composers Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Musicians and Singers Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Writers and Authors Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Dietitians and Nutritionists Very Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Occupational Therapists Very Favorable 30 Master's degree None
Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics Very Favorable 30 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Veterinary Technologists and Technicians Very Favorable 30 Associate's degree None
Medical Records and Health Information Technicians Very Favorable 30 Postsecondary non-degree award None
First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives Unfavorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Cooks, Short Order Very Favorable 30 Less than high school None
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers Very Favorable 30 Less than high school None
Residential Advisors Very Favorable 30 Some college, no degree Less than 1 year
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products Favorable 30 Bachelor's degree None
Telemarketers Unfavorable 30 Less than high school None
Sales and Related Workers, All Other Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks Unfavorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Data Entry Keyers Unfavorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Automotive Body and Related Repairers Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Engine and Other Machine Assemblers Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Bakers Unfavorable 30 Less than high school None
Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic Very Favorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Unfavorable 30 High school diploma or equivalent None
Helpers--Production Workers Favorable 30 Less than high school None
Legislators Unfavorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Administrative Services Managers Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Industrial Production Managers Unfavorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Construction Managers Favorable 20 Associate's degree More than 5 years
Education Administrators, Preschool and Childcare Center/Program Very Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Food Service Managers Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Managers, All Other Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Credit Analysts Very Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree None
Insurance Underwriters Unfavorable 20 Bachelor's degree None
Database Administrators Very Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Architects, Except Landscape and Naval Very Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree None
Civil Engineers Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree None
Mental Health Counselors Very Favorable 20 Master's degree None
Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators Very Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Business Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable 20 Doctoral or professional degree None
Education Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable 20 Doctoral or professional degree None
Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable 20 Doctoral or professional degree None
English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable 20 Doctoral or professional degree None
Vocational Education Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School Very Unfavorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors Favorable 20 Bachelor's degree None
Librarians Unfavorable 20 Master's degree None
Library Technicians Favorable 20 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Editors Very Unfavorable 20 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Photographers Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Dentists, General Very Favorable 20 Doctoral or professional degree None
Anesthesiologists Very Favorable 20 Doctoral or professional degree None
Physician Assistants Very Favorable 20 Master's degree None
Respiratory Therapists Very Favorable 20 Associate's degree None
Veterinarians Very Favorable 20 Doctoral or professional degree None
Occupational Therapy Assistants Very Favorable 20 Associate's degree None
Healthcare Support Workers, All Other Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers Unfavorable 20 Postsecondary non-degree award 1 to 5 years
Detectives and Criminal Investigators Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Advertising Sales Agents Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Court, Municipal, and License Clerks Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs Very Unfavorable 20 Associate's degree None
File Clerks Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Order Clerks Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Information and Record Clerks, All Other Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Legal Secretaries Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Brickmasons and Blockmasons Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Helpers--Carpenters Very Favorable 20 Less than high school None
Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Food Batchmakers Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent Less than 1 year
Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Printing Press Operators Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Print Binding and Finishing Workers Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers Unfavorable 20 Less than high school None
Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand Very Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
First-Line Supervisors of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators Favorable 20 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Parking Lot Attendants Very Unfavorable 20 Less than high school None
Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants Very Favorable 20 Less than high school None
Marketing Managers Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
 Purchasing Managers Very Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree More than 5 years
Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent More than 5 years
Human Resources Managers Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Architectural and Engineering Managers Very Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree More than 5 years
Natural Sciences Managers Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree More than 5 years
Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists Very Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Tax Preparers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Financial Specialists, All Other Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Actuaries Very Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Operations Research Analysts Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Statisticians Very Favorable 10 Master's degree None
Electrical Engineers Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Engineers, All Other Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Architectural and Civil Drafters Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Mechanical Drafters Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technicians Unfavorable 10 Associate's degree None
Industrial Engineering Technicians Very Unfavorable 10 Associate's degree None
Chemists Very Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Chemical Technicians Very Unfavorable 10 Associate's degree None
Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health Very Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Multi-Media Artists and Animators Very Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Commercial and Industrial Designers Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Floral Designers Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Interior Designers Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Actors Unfavorable 10 Some college, no degree None
Radio and Television Announcers Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Reporters and Correspondents Very Unfavorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Audio and Video Equipment Technicians Very Favorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Broadcast Technicians Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians Very Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Diagnostic Medical Sonographers Very Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Surgical Technologists Favorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Opticians, Dispensing Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other Favorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Occupational Health and Safety Specialists Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Physical Therapist Assistants Very Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Massage Therapists Very Favorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Medical Transcriptionists Favorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
First-Line Supervisors of Protective Service Workers, All Other Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Crossing Guards Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Protective Service Workers, All Other Very Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Chefs and Head Cooks Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Building Cleaning Workers, All Other Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Pest Control Workers Very Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Tree Trimmers and Pruners Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Demonstrators and Product Promoters Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Sales Engineers Favorable 10 Bachelor's degree None
Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Loan Interviewers and Clerks Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cargo and Freight Agents Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Couriers and Messengers Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Meter Readers, Utilities Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Postal Service Clerks Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Computer Operators Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Word Processors and Typists Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Office Machine Operators, Except Computer Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse Very Unfavorable 10 Less than high school None
Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers Very Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Glaziers Very Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall Very Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Pipelayers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Roofers Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Sheet Metal Workers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters Very Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining Very Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers Favorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers Very Unfavorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment Very Unfavorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Tire Repairers and Changers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Maintenance Workers, Machinery Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Medical Equipment Repairers Very Favorable 10 Associate's degree None
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Butchers and Meat Cutters Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers Favorable 10 Less than high school None
Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent Less than 1 year
Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Prepress Technicians and Workers Very Unfavorable 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand Very Unfavorable 10 Less than high school None
Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Dental Laboratory Technicians Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Very Unfavorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity Favorable 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Advertising and Promotions Managers Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Public Relations and Fundraising Managers Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Compensation and Benefits Managers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Training and Development Managers Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Education Administrators, All Other Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Lodging Managers Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Postmasters and Mail Superintendents Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Logisticians Very Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Budget Analysts Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Financial Examiners Very Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Credit Counselors Very Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Computer and Information Research Scientists Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Computer Occupations, All Other Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Landscape Architects Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Surveyors Very Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Chemical Engineers Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Computer Hardware Engineers Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Electronics Engineers, Except Computer Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Environmental Engineers Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Materials Engineers Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Electrical and Electronics Drafters Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Civil Engineering Technicians Favorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Environmental Engineering Technicians Favorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Mechanical Engineering Technicians Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Surveying and Mapping Technicians Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Food Scientists and Technologists Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Biochemists and Biophysicists Very Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Biological Scientists, All Other Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Foresters Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers Very Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Urban and Regional Planners Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Historians Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Agricultural and Food Science Technicians Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Geological and Petroleum Technicians Very Favorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Counselors, All Other Very Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Court Reporters Favorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary Unfavorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary Unfavorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Communications Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
History Teachers, Postsecondary Very Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary Very Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Curators Very Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Education, Training, and Library Workers, All Other Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials Very Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Public Address System and Other Announcers Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Broadcast News Analysts Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Technical Writers Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree 1 to 5 years
Interpreters and Translators Very Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Media and Communication Workers, All Other Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Sound Engineering Technicians Unfavorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Media and Communication Equipment Workers, All Other Very Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Chiropractors Very Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Prosthodontists Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Optometrists Very Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Family and General Practitioners Very Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Psychiatrists Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Radiation Therapists Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Recreational Therapists Favorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Therapists, all other Very Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Audiologists Very Favorable Less than 10 Doctoral or professional degree None
Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners, All Other Very Favorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Nuclear Medicine Technologists Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Dietetic Technicians Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Respiratory Therapy Technicians Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Orthotists and Prosthetists Unfavorable Less than 10 Master's degree None
Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Bachelor's degree None
Physical Therapist Aides Very Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Medical Equipment Preparers Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Pharmacy Aides Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Bailiffs Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Animal Control Workers Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Private Detectives and Investigators Very Favorable Less than 10 Some college, no degree 1 to 5 years
Motion Picture Projectionists Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other Very Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance Unfavorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Shampooers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Skincare Specialists Very Favorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Travel Agents Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
New Accounts Clerks Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Desktop Publishers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Fallers Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Plasterers and Stucco Masons Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Structural Iron and Steel Workers Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners Very Favorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Electric Motor, Power Tool, and Related Repairers Unfavorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers Favorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians Favorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Farm Equipment Mechanics and Service Technicians Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Motorcycle Mechanics Very Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Millwrights Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other Favorable Less than 10 Associate's degree None
Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers Very Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Locksmiths and Safe Repairers Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Programmers, Metal and Plastic Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Pourers and Casters, Metal Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Tool and Die Makers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Lay-Out Workers, Metal and Plastic Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, All Other Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Sewing Machine Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Upholsterers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Furniture Finishers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Woodworkers, All Other Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Power Plant Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Chemical Plant and System Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Gas Plant Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders Favorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cutters and Trimmers, Hand Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Painters, Transportation Equipment Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Etchers and Engravers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Production Workers, All Other Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent None
Commercial Pilots Very Favorable Less than 10 Postsecondary non-degree award None
Locomotive Engineers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 High school diploma or equivalent 1 to 5 years
Transportation Inspectors Unfavorable Less than 10 Some college, no degree None
Conveyor Operators and Tenders Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None
Crane and Tower Operators Favorable Less than 10 Less than high school 1 to 5 years
Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school 1 to 5 years
Machine Feeders and Offbearers Very Unfavorable Less than 10 Less than high school None

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